Electric toothbrush is a toothbrush that makes rapid automatic bristle motions, either back-and-forth oscillation or rotation-oscillation, in order to clean teeth.
Motions at sonic speeds or below are made by a motor. In the case of ultrasonic toothbrushes, ultrasonic motions are produced by a piezoelectric crystal.
A modern electric toothbrush is usually powered by a rechargeable battery charged through inductive charging when the brush sits in the charging base between uses.
Electric toothbrushes can be classified according to the frequency (speed) of their movements as power, sonic or ultrasonic toothbrushes, depending on whether they make movements that are below, in or above the audible range (20–20,000 Hz or 2400–2,400,000 movements per minute), respectively.
The first electric toothbrush was invented in Switzerland in 1954 by Dr. Philippe Guy Woog. Woog's electric toothbrushes were originally manufactured in Switzerland (later in France) for Broxo S.A.
The device plugged into a standard wall outlet and ran on line voltage. Electric toothbrushes were initially created for patients with limited motor skills and for orthodontic patients.
When using vibrating toothbrush, a brushing technique similar to that used with a manual toothbrush is recommended, whereas with rotating-oscillating brushes the recommended cleaning technique is to simply move the brush slowly from tooth to tooth.
Electric toothbrushes can also be classified according to the speed of their movements as standard power toothbrushes, sonic toothbrushes or ultrasonic toothbrushes.
If the motion of the toothbrush is sufficiently rapid to produce a hum in the audible frequency of human range (20 Hz to 20,000 Hz), it can be classified as a sonic toothbrush.
Any electric toothbrush with movement faster than (20 Hz to 20,000 Hz) can be classified as an ultrasonic toothbrush. Certain ultrasonic toothbrushes.
Sonic toothbrushes are a subset of electric toothbrushes with movement that is fast enough to produce vibration in the audible range.
Most modern rechargeable electric toothbrushes from brands such as Sonicare, FOREO, and Oral-B fall into this category and typically have a frequencies that range from 200 to 400 Hz, that is 12,000–24,000 oscillations or 24,000–48,000 movements per minute.
Because sonic toothbrushes rely on sweeping motion alone to clean the teeth, the movement that they provide is often high in amplitude, meaning that the length of the sweeping movements that they make is large.
The newest developments in this field are ultrasonic toothbrushes, which use ultrasonic waves to clean the teeth.
In order for a toothbrush to be considered "ultrasonic" it has to emit a wave at a minimum frequency of 20,000 Hz or 2,400,000 movements per minute.
Typically, ultrasonic toothbrushes approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) operate at a frequency of 1.6 MHz, which translates to 192,000,000 movements per minute.
Ultrasonic toothbrushes emit vibrations that are very high in frequency but low in amplitude. These vibrations break up bacterial chains that make up dental plaque and remove their methods of attachment to the tooth surface up to 5 mm below the gum line.
Claims have been made that electric toothbrushes are more effective than manual ones as they are less dependent upon a user's personal brushing technique.
Some dentists also claim that they help children with overcoming their fear of the dentist. Independent research finds that most electric toothbrushes are no more effective than manual brushes—assuming that people use a manual toothbrush brush effectively.
The rotation-oscillation-models have been found to be marginally better than manual ones.
The research concludes that the way brushing is done, including the amount of time spent, is more important than the choice of brush.
For patients with limited manual dexterity or where difficulty exists in reaching rear teeth, however, dentists regard electric toothbrushes as being especially beneficial.
A 2014 Cochrane review suggested the effectiveness of electric toothbrushes over manual ones: plaque build-up and gingival inflammation was reduced by 11% and 6% respectively after one to three months of use and after three months of use, the reduction observed was greater – 21% reduction in plaque and 11% reduction in gingival inflammation.
In addition, ultrasound from a commercially available ultrasonic toothbrush has been shown to break up dental plaque composed of chains of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans bacteria, destroying their cell walls and removing their methods of attachment to the enamel surface, at a distance of 5mm from the plaque.
The effectiveness of an electric toothbrush depends not only on its type of action and on correct use, but also on the condition of the brush head. Most manufacturers recommend that heads be changed every three to six months at minimum, or as soon as the brush head has visibly deteriorated.
Ultrasonic toothbrush is an electric toothbrush designed for daily home use that operates by generating ultrasound in order to aid in removing plaque and rendering plaque bacteria harmless.
It typically operates on a frequency of 1.6 MHz, which translates to 96,000,000 pulses or 192,000,000 movements per minute.
Ultrasound is defined as a series of acoustic pressure waves generated at a frequency beyond human hearing
The first ultrasonic toothbrush, initially branded Ultima and later Ultrasonex by Sonex Corporation, was first patented in the USA in 1992 by Robert T. Bock, the same year the FDA gave it approval for daily home use.
The sonic toothbrush, also known as the Sonicare ® toothbrush, is different because it is able to move faster and in a way that no other toothbrush has ever moved.
The sonic cleaning action is unlike any other toothbrush on the market now or in the past.
The sonic toothbrush, such as the Sonicare ® toothbrush, is unique not only in appearance and claim, but also in function.
The first function is the scrubbing that takes place when the toothbrush bristles hit the surface of the teeth.
The secondary mechanism is based on the speed of the bristle vibration. The motion is able to move around the entire surface of the tooth.
The vibrating motion is also able to remove food debris and plaque from the teeth that could not be removed with your traditional toothbrush.
The speed of the bristle movement and vibration are what sets the sonic toothbrush apart from all of the others on the market.
The sonic style toothbrush will provide the consumer with more than 30,000 brush strokes per minute.
Other electric toothbrushes will only provide 2,500 to 2,700 brush strokes per minute, which just doesn’t compare.
When you have to choose between a manual toothbrush and an electric one, which one would you pick?
Electric Toothbrush More Convenience & Efficiency
Considering factors such as convenience and plaque cleaning efficiency, the electric toothbrush certainly has an edge over the humble toothbrush.
The electric toothbrush makes brushing simple and straight forward. All you have to do is just push one button and place the toothbrush around you teeth for a refreshing cleaning session.
Electric toothbrushes are also helpful people with arthritis or rheumatism, which will take the strain off brushing vigorously in order to maintain oral health.
Research have found electrically powered brushing to be more effective in dislodging dental plaque than traditional brushing. These days, electronic toothbrushes are designed to accommodate every mouth.
Some electric toothbrushes even comes with smaller heads which are terrific for navigating within hard to reach corners of the mouth. Together with high speed power, using an electric toothbrush will ensure healthy teeth and gums for the long haul.
Most electric toothbrushes also have a built-in two minute timer to let you know that you have brushed long enough to keep your teeth in tip top condition. Since under brushing (less than two minutes) is shown to one of the leading causes to poor dental hygiene, busy adults will benefit from having a self timer which buzzes or vibrates after two minutes. The electric toothbrush is also a great time awareness training device for children.
This gadget can help children understand the concept of time and instill the discipline to do a thorough job of cleaning their teeth. There are even models that boosts a 30 minute timer for each quadrant of the mouth for more diligent brushing.
Manual toothbrushes works for people who are accustomed to the old way of brushing and for those who are on short trips. However, as a tool itself, an ordinary toothbrush lacks in features which the electric tooth brush possess.
The electric toothbrush, when compared to a manual toothbrush, cleans more efficiently within the same amount of time because of the higher number of brushstrokes. Unless you have strong forearm muscles and are willing to commit more time to cleaning your teeth, a power driven toothbrush seems like the logical way to go.
When shopping for an electric toothbrush, do look out for respectable brands. There are oscillating types, forward-backward motion types as well as electric toothbrushes with a combination of both. Be sure to find one that you think you’ll enjoy using most – one with a solid grip and befitting to your lifestyle.
Other specifications such as battery operated or built-in rechargeable battery, power notches and various timers are some of the things to consider. There are also high end models which comes with pressure sensors. These specialized toothbrushes check for undue pressure on the teeth and gums, helping you to prevent tooth erosion and gum bleeding.
Although an electric toothbrush costs more than a manual toothbrush, it is really a sound investment for your long term oral health and well being. Electric toothbrushes usually come with a replaceable brush head that you toss and replace once it wears out.
Be it manual or electric, the most important key to good oral hygiene is consistency. Getting into the habit of brushing (for no less than 2 minutes) and flossing your teeth on a daily basis will benefit your dental health greatly. Owning a toothbrush that you are comfortable with will infinitely influence your brushing habits.